If you've learned about politics from comedy shows, memes, and posts on Facebook, I really can't blame you if you're confused, and possibly angry and frustrated, with the government. It just looks like random stuff happening. But if you're genuinely interested in learning about how the United States government works, here are some suggestions:
• Learn the difference between a Democracy and a Republic. The United States isn't, and never has been, and Democracy. It's a Republic. Start with understanding how representative government works and you're more than half-way there.
• Find out about how the United States was formed, and how other governments work. Take a look at Humanism, and the Enlightenment. The United States government was a revolutionary idea at the time, as it didn't rely on the authority of a King.
• Read up on what Presidents do. Just pick any president that comes to mind. I kind'a like Theodore Roosevelt. Or maybe you can read about Lincoln, or Washington. Heck, you can read about Millard Fillmore if you want to! And resist the temptation to read a fictionalized account, or to watch a movie. Fiction is how many people get confused. If you want the truth, it's best to avoid fiction. If you're not big on reading, you can watch some documentaries. I can highly recommend The American Experience on PBS. But you really are better off reading, as anything else tends to be a condensed version.
That's a good start. The fact that you're interested in learning more is great. Most people have no interest in this kind of stuff at all. And in a country that relies on an informed citizenship to choose its leaders, this is pretty darned important!